E3 is three forms of elder preparation that tap into the health properties of both the Sambucus species studied for human health benefits and internal consumption.
Elderberry: There are two main species of elder - European and North American
European Elderberry Sambucus nigra L. and North American Elderberry Sambucus canadensis
Both plants have very similar constituencies and beneficial for viral illness support. The North American version has adapted to the North American climate and has a few more constituencies that ensure plant survival on this continent.
Sambucus nigra has been used historically all over the world for centuries. Described by ancient physicians as far back as the fifth century BCE as the country people’s medicine cabinet ("The Clinical Guide to Elderberry," 2018), elderberry has been relied on for cold and flu-like illnesses by multiple global populations. Historically used for nasal congestion, cough, and fever. Elder has been specifically shown to reduce hemagglutination and replication of four strains of influenza A and three strains of influenza B in vitro ("The Clinical Guide to Elderberry," 2018).
Though there is a general recommendation to avoid elder's use during these life stages and consumed safely for ages and revolves more around the medical reluctance to recommend substances not studied extensively allopathically ("The Clinical Guide to Elderberry," 2018). Herbal supplement and use, in general, has gained more acceptance and is becoming a thing of the past with an increasing number of herbs, including elder finding their way into the commercial supplement market. In the case of Sambucus nigra scientific evidence is growing in its efficacy as an antiviral remedy for Influenza A and B and several bacteria and fungal infections.
A well-designed laboratory-based study analyzing the antibacterial and antifungal capability of nine botanicals to include elderflowers and berries. Each plant was then evaluated for its effectiveness within three different solutions, ethanol and water. The botanical solutions were then compared in minimal inhibitory concentrations against vancomycin, amoxicillin, and amphotericin B (Cioch et al., 2017). Though this study had nothing to do with viral infections, it was highly intriguing, especially regarding the statistical differences regarding botanical efficacy to carrier agents. It was also interesting to note the differences in the same plant's different anatomical parts (i.e., elderflowers versus berries) directly impact the microorganisms affected. The antimicrobial capability of elders is attributed to the flavonons, flavonols, and dihydroflavonols of the flower. Both flower and fruit were found to inhibit both gram-negative (Salmonella poona and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Though the study's overall conclusion was that of the plants tested, there were relatively low levels of activity against the microorganisms used but recommended further study as to how to increase the efficiency of inhibition that was observed (Cioch et al., 2017).
For more information:
Cioch, M., Satora, P., Skotniczny, M., Semik-Szczurak, D., & Tarko, T. (2017). Characterization of Antimicrobial Properties of Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants. Polish Journal Of Microbiology, 66(4), 463-472. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0010.7002
The Clinical Guide to Elderberry. (2018). Retrieved from http://cms.herbalgram.org/press/files/elderberry-scr.pdf
The Journal of the American Botanical Council - Elderberry. (2004). Retrieved from http://cms.herbalgram.org/press/files/elderberry-scr.pdf
Harnett, J., Oakes, K., Carè, J., Leach, M., Brown, D., & Cramer, H. et al. (2020). The effects of Sambucus nigra berry on acute respiratory viral infections: A rapid review of clinical studies. Advances In Integrative Medicine, 7(4), 240-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aimed.2020.08.001
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